Terms related to fanzine publishing are explained below. This section includes terms used in the tutorial as well as common printing terms.

Image data

  1. Resolution

Resolution is a numerical value indicating the number of dots (pixels) used to express an image. The fineness of the image depends on the resolution. A higher resolution creates a finer image. This makes it possible to enlarge the image further and still maintain sufficient image quality, as well as enabling finer details to be shown.

The unit for resolution is "DPI (or dpi)", which stands for "dots per inch". This refers to the number of dots (pixels) placed in a line within the span of one inch (2.54cm).

For example, "600dpi" means that a one-inch line on the image contains 600 dots (pixels).

<Guide to resolutions used in manuscripts for printing>

Manuscript format Recommended resolution Remarks
Duotone 600dpi - 1200dpi

A high resolution is recommended when printing in monochrome to avoid moire from occurring in the halftone dots.

600dpi is generally used, but 1200dpi is less risky for manuscripts with fine detail, such as "Shojo manga" (However, this makes the data heavier).

*Some printing shops may not accept 1200dpi print jobs.
Color manuscripts 350dpi Because color manuscript data contains a high quantity of information, a low resolution is recommended to keep the data from becoming too heavy. 350dpi will provide sufficient image quality.

Although many printing shops specify recommended resolution in a range ("XXdpi to YYdpi"), this does not mean that they can handle all resolutions in this range. To avoid issues, it is recommended that you use a commonly used resolution.

For example, if the range is 600dpi to 1200dpi, either "600dpi" or "1200dpi" should theoretically be used. The reason why other resolutions such as 900dpi should not be used is because the manuscript may ultimately be converted to the default resolution set by the printing shop. Using a commonly used resolution from the beginning is therefore less risky.

  1. RGB

A color model for monitors in which color is expressed in red (R), green (G) and blue (B). This is the display format used when images are posted online. The colors are brighter than when CMYK is used.

  1. CMYK

A color model for printing in which colors are expressed by cyan (C), magenta (M), yellow (Y) and black (K). This produces more subdued colors than RGB. Most printing shops output print jobs in CMYK format. Color illustrations in fanzines must therefore be colored in the CMYK display to avoid unexpected coloring from occurring in the finished work.

*Some printing shops now handle RGB, but this may incur an additional charge.

  1. Color depth

Color depth refers to the number of colors that can be displayed on a screen such as a monitor. This is expressed in bits. Three main color depths are generally used: duotone, grayscale and color.
Many people are unsure of the difference between "duotone" and "grayscale" because they are both black and white, but these two formats actually differ significantly.

This is expressed using only two colors: black and white. The areas that appear gray are simply expressed by black halftone dots.

This is expressed using degrees of color density from black to white. This color depth is ideal for posting black and white manga online.

As the name suggests, this can be expressed in various colors. Use this when creating manuscripts in full color.


  1. Crop marks

The lines at the top, bottom, left and right and in each of the four corners of the paper in a manuscript.

Crop marks are used to align pages for printing or as a guide for trimming (removing unnecessary areas of the paper) when creating printed works.

They are required when requesting printing from a printing shop.

  1. Center crop marks

The cross-shape marks at the center of the top, bottom, left and right of the page in manuscripts (block copy) are called "center crop marks". In Japan, where this software was made, these marks are called "tombo" (Japanese for "dragonflies") because the shape resembles a dragonfly.

These crop marks serve as a guide when aligning the front and reverse side during double-sided printing or aligning block copies for multicolor printing.

  1. Corner crop marks

The crop marks in the corners are referred to as "corner crop marks". They are used as a guide for trimming.

They are represented by a double line, with the outer line referred to as the "bleed border" ("outer crop marks", "print crop marks" and "bleed information crop marks") and the inner line referred to as the "cropped border" ("bleed crop marks" and "inner crop marks").

Cropped border
This is the line at which the pages will be trimmed for binding after printing. Pictures within this border are printed.

Bleed border
The extra margin to deal with misaligned [Cropped border] lines when trimming the edges of the manuscript.

"Bleed" also refers to the process of printing all the way to the bleed border when the artist wishes to print all the way to the edge of the page. Frames for which this process is performed are referred to as "bleed frames".

The edges of the manuscript are trimmed during binding. If this process is performed, pictures remain up to the edge of the page.

White space may occur around the edges if the page almost completely fills the printing range.

Use the bleed if cutoff occurs (cases in which pictures in manga, etc. cover the entire page).

Bleed width (bleed)
The width of the area between the "cropped border" and "bleed border". This is also referred to simply as the "bleed". The specified width differs depending on the printing shop.

  1. Default border (inner)

This is the reference border to lay out frames. If features of the manuscript such as dialog and pictures are drawn near the edge of the page, these may be cut off or disappear into the bound area during the binding process. The purpose of the default border is to avoid this.

Place important dialog and pictures inside the default border to avoid issues during binding.

  1. Top and bottom/Gutter/Front

The parts of a manga manuscript. Upper side is called top and lower side is called bottom. "Gutter" refers to the bound side and "front" refers to the side opposite the bind.

Illustrations and dialog on the gutter side (the pink area of the figure below) are often not easily seen after binding. Avoid placing important dialog or images too close to the gutter.

Additional information on a work

  1. Folio

The number indicating the page number. This is required to ensure that the pages are printed and bound in the correct order.

The most common methods of assigning folios are to count the cover page as Page 1 or to count the first page of the main text as Page 1. Some printing shops are not particular about the start number as long as the pages are in the correct order, while others have a clearly specified starting position for the folio.

Folios are displayed only on the main text pages and are not displayed on the cover page. In manga, they are usually placed outside the frames.

*Some printing shops will not accept print jobs without folios.

  1. Blind folio

If the author does not want to place a folio on the page, such as in cases in which the picture and folio would otherwise be in the same place, the folio is placed in an unobtrusive spot on the page. Such folios are referred to as "blind folio".

*Be sure to place these inside the cropped border. Folios placed outside the cropped border cannot be seen by the printing shop staff.

  1. Colophon

Be sure to include a colophon on the last page of a fanzine. The colophon usually contains information on the work (title, date of publication, printing place, etc.) and information on the author (name, contact details, website URL, etc.).

It used to be common for the contact details to contain the real name and address of the author, but these days many authors only write details such as a pen name and email address to protect their privacy or because of the wider spread that now occurs online.


  1. Binding

The direction in which the pages of a book are bound.
Right binding is usually used for books with vertical text, such as manga where the text is written vertically.
Left binding is usually used for books with horizontal text, such as overseas manga where the text is written horizontally.

  1. Perfect binding (stitch binding)

A method of binding using only adhesive, without staples or thread. It is the most popular binding method.

  1. Center binding

A binding method in which the pages are placed together open (usually four pages to one sheet) and bound with wire at the center. This binding method is common for magazines.

  1. Cover page

The first and last page (sheet) of a book are referred to collectively as the "cover page".

The first page is referred to as the "front cover page" (Cover Page 1), the last page is referred to as the "back cover page" (Cover Page 4), and the inner side of these pages are referred to as Cover Pages 2 and 3.

  1. Reverse printing

If printing on Cover Pages 2 and 3, this is referred to as "reverse printing". If a special decorative sheet is pasted here, this is referred to as "backing". Some printing shops may charge extra for backing.

  1. Main text

All pages other than the contents page, colophon and cover page of a manga, etc. are referred to as the "main text". Although "main text" gives the impression of text rather than pictures, "main text" is also generally used as a printing term for these pages in a manga.

The "flyleaf" is not counted as part of the main text as it is not a page.

  1. Flyleaf

The flyleaf is a decorative, unnumbered page (sheet) between the cover page and main text in works such as fanzines.

  1. Title page (Tobira)

The first page. It is called title page.

  1. Back width (spine thickness)

The width of the spine cover is called the "back width".

  1. Insert

An extra sheet inserted among the pages of the main text when binding. It is common to insert illustrated or full-color frontispieces on special paper.

  1. Flatplan

"Flatplan" refers to the composition of a fanzine. A "flatplan table" is also used, containing information such as the total number of pages and the position of each page.


  1. Offset printing

A printing method in which the ink on the block is transferred to an intermediary transfer medium (offset) before application onto the paper from the intermediary medium.
The ink on the block is transferred to an intermediary transfer medium (offset) before application onto the paper from the intermediary medium. The most popular printing method for fanzines.

  1. On-demand printing

A printing method using an on-demand printer. Data is sent directly to the printer and printed without creating a printing block.
"On-demand" refers not to the printing technology itself but the fact that printing of the front can be completed in a short period of time.

  1. PP processing

Processing in which polypropylene film is crimped to the printed sheets. The application of this film protects the surface and increases the luster.

  1. Matte PP processing

Matte PP processing creates a finish with a less lustrous surface than the strong luster created by standard PP processing.

  1. Missing pages

Refers to cases in which some pages are missing.

  1. Disarranged pages

Refers to cases in which the pages are bound in the incorrect order.

  1. Misprint

Refers to errors in printed text, numbers and symbols.

  1. Film printing

A print block production method. This allows neat printing.

  1. Hot stamping

A special printing method in which foil is applied by heat and pressure. This is used for attaching gold or silver leaf for the title, etc.

  1. Silk screening (screen printing)

A printing method in which film or paper containing a picture, etc. is applied to silk and the ink is spread across the surface. This kind of printing can be done on various materials in various conditions.

  1. Number of copies

The number of copies of a book that are printed. When the number of copies are 100, it means the number of volumes are 100.

Manga production

  1. Moire

A phenomenon that occurs when two continuous patterns are overlaid on top of each other, creating a new pattern. Also referred to as "interference fringes".

This phenomenon occurs easily in cases such as the following:

・When tones are overlaid
・When dots are at an angle other than 45 degrees
・Anti-aliasing is applied to the dots

and so on

  1. Tone jump

A phenomenon in which the continuity of the gradient in an image is lost, creating a striped effect.
This occurs easily in cases such as failed scanning or when extreme correction is performed.

  1. White on black

White text or picture on a black background.

  1. White edge

A white edge around dialog or drawn text.

  1. Spread

When a picture is drawn across the left and right page, this is referred to as a "spread" or "spread pages".

Data formats

  1. BMP

The standard image format for Windows, also referred to as a bitmap image. It has a high resolution, but the data tends to be heavy. The extension is ".bmp".

  1. TIFF

An image format often used when pasting images for desktop publishing. The extension is ".tif".

  1. JPEG

An image format that is widely used online. It is ideal for images with many gradients, such as photos. While it is highly versatile, it generally uses a resolution of 72dpi, making the image quality poorer than other data formats. The extension is ".jpg".

  1. PNG

The third Internet image format, containing the merits of both GIFs and JPEGs. Transparent areas can be specified. This image compression method uses lossless compression that allows full restoration of the original information. The extension is ".png".

  1. PSD

The image format used by Photoshop, graphics software created by Adobe that is the standard software in the design industry. Contains a layering function. The extension is ".psd".

  1. EPS

An image format often used when pasting images for desktop publishing. This format allows high-speed editing of low-resolution data on the screen and high-performance output when printing high-resolution data. The extension is ".eps".


  1. Font

A typeface set for computers.

  1. Typeface

A unified design for an entire set of characters.

  1. Anti Gothic

The standard font used for commercial manga. Antique is used for hiragana and katakana and Gothic is used for Chinese characters (kanji).

  1. Gothic

A Japanese typeface in which all of the vertical and horizontal lines in each character are roughly the same width.

  1. Mincho

A Japanese typeface in which the characters imitate the difference in brush pressure between the start and end of each line that occurs when writing with a calligraphy brush.

  1. PostScript font

An outline font that allows attractive text with no jaggedness when printing or displaying on the screen, even at a large size. These fonts are expensive but have a high resolution, which has led to their popularity mainly for commercial purposes. A printer font is required.

  1. TrueType font

An outline font that allows attractive text with no jaggedness when printing or displaying on the screen, even at a large size. These fonts are inexpensive and have a low resolution, and as a result are popular mainly for personal use. A printer font is not required.


  1. Color sample book

A book showing samples of each color. Contains color charts for solid printing with the basic ink colors and for four-color printing (when specifying a color for color printing).

  1. Full color printing

Refers to printing in which manuscripts created in full color are broken down into 4 colors (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) and printed in the corresponding ink.

  1. Multicolor printing

A color printing method in which a monochrome manuscript is printed by printing multiple colors of ink in layers, rather than breaking down the colors of a color manuscript (full color printing/4-color printing).

  1. Basic colors

Ink colors other than black that are provided by a printing shop for no extra charge or for a low price.